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If feet of pipe can be represented by the following equation: Suppose that the pollutants must be reduced to 10% in order for the kerosene to be used for jet fuel.
How long does the pipe have to be to ensure that there is only 10% of the pollutants left in the kerosene?
We estimate the impact of a carbon tax on manufacturing plants using panel data from the UK production census.
Our identification strategy builds on the comparison of outcomes between plants subject to the full tax and plants that paid only 20% of the tax.
As soon as a living organism dies, it stops taking in new carbon.
The ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 at the moment of death is the same as every other living thing, but the carbon-14 decays and is not replaced.
The kerosene is purified by removing pollutants, using a clay filter.
Suppose the clay is in a pipe and as the kerosene flows through the pipe, every foot of clay removes 20% of the pollutants, leaving 80%.
When an organism dies it ceases to replenish carbon in its tissues and the decay of carbon 14 to nitrogen 14 changes the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14.
The stable form of carbon is carbon 12 and the radioactive isotope carbon 14 decays over time into nitrogen 14 and other particles.
Carbon is naturally in all living organisms and is replenished in the tissues by eating other organisms or by breathing air that contains carbon.
The half-life of a radioactive isotope describes the amount of time that it takes half of the isotope in a sample to decay.
In the case of radiocarbon dating, the half-life of carbon 14 is 5,730 years.